The Darkness at the Bottom of the Soul

Understanding the Four Mechanisms that Drive People to Suicide

At some point in our lives, we may all experience a minor depression, for example after a death in the family, or when we fail to pass an exam. To most people, a light depression is short-lived, but victims of child maltreatment can suffer negative thoughts about themselves, others and the world around them a whole life long. Without professional help, they can’t heal.

Freedom as a Physical Property of the Universe

Things that grow never become more equal, only less equal. Since the inception of the universe, stars did not come to resemble each other more over time, but less. From its birth, an organism’s organs don’t converge in form and function, but diverge. As people age, their individual resumes end up differing more from one another, not less. Since the beginning of history, human culture and identity did not become more of the...

On the Question of Being Born Good or Evil

On the question of whether people are born good or evil, the answer is, “competent”. Man—the species—is born competently equipped for his survival. To be “born good” therefore refers not to man, but to his environment, namely to be born in an abundant environment in which there is room for growth. To be “born bad” means to be born in a restrictive environment in which the survival of one comes at anothers’ expense.

For example, in a hypothetical environment with a carrying capacity of precisely X...

The Will to Meaning

Who, after All, Moves Whom First, Man or His Reality?

“What is the meaning of life?” That question is wrong, because life doesn’t have meaning. Life is meaning. Moreover, a meaning in life isn’t something you claim for yourself, but that which you grant others. Life grants the universe its meaning. We create meaning by making room for meaning. Meaning fights a counter force it must push away—a counter-meaning. Life is that pushing force.

The fact that life is meaningful suggests a free will...

On the Matter of Earliest Memories

By Vincent van Gogh

Great Italian inventor Leonardo da Vinci once recollected a childhood memory from the first year of his life. From the Codex Atlanticus,

“It seems that it had been destined before that I should occupy myself so thoroughly with the kite [a bird], for it comes to my mind as a very early memory, when I was still in the cradle, a kite came down to me, he opened my mouth with his tail and struck me a few times with his tail


On the Realness of Movement

Some people suffer from a rare condition called akinetopsia, which means motion blindness. These people cannot perceive moving objects the way others do. To them, moving objects appear as static objects, disappearing and reappearing in different places along their paths. For example, normal people perceive a train passing them by in one fluid motion. People with akinetopsia perceive the train as snapshots of a train ‘jumping’ from one spot to the next at certain intervals, but without movement...

Why Do Animals Have Four Legs?

All terrestrial vertebrate animals have four limbs (plus head and tail), except for snakes, who used to have them, but lost them again through evolution. But why do they have four limbs?

Evolutionary biologists will answer the question without answering it. They will explain that terrestrial vertebrates descended from a fish-like ancestor that had four limbs. C’est tout. But this answer does not satisfy. The answer insinuates evolution works at random, with no regard for form...

Permissionless Culture

How Decentralized Technology Will Forever Change the Way We See Art

Painting by Piet mondrian

After literature and music, fine art remains a last bastion of cultural elitism. Arguably, the centralization of paintings and sculptures by the world’s best artists in private collections has robbed society of emotional growth. How much longer will we tolerate this egotistical crime against humanity? Today, emerging internet technologies not only enable permissionless innovation, but also provide tools for people to both create and copy culture in ways that cannot be censored. Like a Beethoven...

Why Pegida Exists

Root of Evil, or Response to Self-Hatred?

Imagine, hypothetically speaking, that in the near future all native German women would give birth to four children per woman, even though they knew they could only raise and educate two of them. Perforce, because German society could no longer provide for its people, chancellor Merkel decided to send this population surplus to Turkey, for example, first as guest workers, next in the light of some kind of family reunion, and lastly as so-called refugees. The first and...

On the Purpose of Socialism

Self-Determination or Managed Freedom?

Der Rhein bei Säckingen (1864) by Hans Thoma

In On Anarchism, famed intellectual Noam Chomsky writes,

“And that’s one of the main purposes of socialism, I think: to reach a point where people have the opportunity to decide freely for themselves what their needs are, and not have the ‘choices’ forced on them by some arbitrary system of power.”1